#26 Samurai さむらい

Twice a month, my friend and I organize the event, “Let’s talk about Kyoto in English and Japanese”. Today’s theme was Samurai.
I took memo of useful expression 🙂

(All from “Trad Japan” NHK publisher has copy right.)
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There’s useful expression memo:

The word “samurai” is derived from the word “saburau”, which means “to serve”.
(「侍」という言葉の語源は「さぶらふ」。「仕える」という意味があります。)

It’s believed that the forerunners of the samurai were men who served the nobility as guards, roughly 1,000years ago.
(およそ1,000年前の平安時代、貴族達に仕え、警護していたもの達が「侍」の前身であったと考えられています。

At the end of the 12th century, Minamoto no Yoritomo established the Kamoakura shogunate, and the reign of the samurai began.
(12世紀の終わり、源頼朝が鎌倉幕府を開き、侍が国を治める時代が始まります。)

During the age of civil war in the 16th century, samurai warriors fought and died in the battles for land expansion and power. A series of superstar warlords emerged. It was an era when military strength was the key to gaining political power.
(16世紀の戦国時代には、侍たちは領土を得るために命をかけて戦いを繰り広げました。歴史に名を刻む戦国武将たちも次々に登場。武力こそが権力を握る際の重要な鍵となる時代でした。)

The beginning of the 17th century opened a stunning new chapter in the history of the samurai.
The Edo period shogunate was established in what is now Tokyo, and therefore, around 250 years of peace world reign throughout Japan. Fighters by trade, the samurai had no choice but to embark on a completely different way of life.
(17世紀初頭、侍の歴史が大きく変わります。現在の東京に江戸幕府が開かれ、およそ250年にわたる戦いのない平和な世が訪れます。戦いを本業としていた侍達はこれまでとは別の生き方をしなくてはいけませんでした。)

During the Edo period, the shogunate promoted the teaching of Chu His Confucianism, a school of Chinese philosophy. And the samurai incorporated these ideas into everyday life.
(幕府は中国の思想、朱子学を推奨。侍たちもその考え方を日々の生活に取り込んでいきました。)

A strong spiritual backbone became the hallmark of samurai values.
(やがて深い精神性を持つことが、侍の価値としてとらえられるようになります。)

Be loyal to your master.
Observe proper etiquette.
Do what’s right without hesitation.
Show compassion for the weak.

(主君に忠義を尽くす
人としての礼節を重んじる
正しいことを敢然と実行する
弱いものには慈悲をもって接する)

The advent of the Meiji era in the late 19th century brought and end to the age of the samurai, but their spirit remained the basis of Japanese moral values.
(19世紀後期、明治時代となり、侍の時代が終わりを告げても、その心は受け継がれ、日本人の道徳観を築いていきます。)

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Other useful expression we studied:

Hiragana are derived from Kanji.
(ひらがなは感じにその起源を持ちます)

Dash soup stock is the key to Japanese cuisine.
(だしが日本料理の鍵です)

After the Meiji restoration, many Japanese started to adopt a Western way of life. (明治維新の後、多くの日本人は西洋風の生活様式を取り入れ始めました)

*儒学(Confucianism)は孔子(Confusius, 前551-前479)の政治論理思想を研究する学問。一方、朱子学(Chu Hsi Confucianism) は南宋時代の中国の儒家、朱熹(Chu Hsi, 1130-1200)が大成させた新しい儒学説。朱子学の特徴である大義名分論は封建体制の維持に論理的支柱を与え、江戸時代には官学として重視された。

The tea ceremony is often regarded as hallmark of Japanese culture.
(茶の湯は日本文化の特徴と考えられることがよくあります)

The advent of Hiragana characters encouraged many Heian ladies to become writers.
(ひらがなの発明によって、多くの宮廷の女性が作家となりました。)

With the advent of the Meiji period in 1868, Japan started a process of modernization.
(1868年の明治時代の到来とともに、日本は近代化の道を進み始めました)

Ito Tadataka, the late Edo period surveyor and cartographer, was the first person to create very detailed maps of Japan.
(江戸後期の測量家、地理学者の伊藤忠敬は非常に詳細な日本地図を最初に作った人物です)

The architectural style used for traditional tea house is referred to as sukiyaki-zukuri.
(伝統的な茶室に用いられている建築様式は数寄屋造りと呼ばれています)

All from “Trad Japan” NHK publisher has copy right.

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